xmonad Per-Layout Keybindings

In xmonad it can be useful to have different keybindings for different layouts, or respond to other events differently depending on the active layout. This can be accomplished by looking up the active layout in the hook. For this we define a utility function:

import XMonad
import qualified XMonad.StackSet as S

-- Get the name of the active layout.
getActiveLayoutDescription :: X String
getActiveLayoutDescription = do
    workspaces <- gets windowset
    return $ description . S.layout . S.workspace . S.current $ workspaces

We can use this function in keybindings as follows. Here I’m using the BinarySpacePartition layout, and my other layouts are based on Tall. Depending on whether I have BSP active or not, I send different messages.

-- ...

import XMonad.Layout.BinarySpacePartition

myKeys = [ ((mod4Mask .|. shiftMask, xK_l), do
            layout <- getActiveLayoutDescription
            case layout of
                "BSP" -> sendMessage $ ExpandTowards R
                _     -> sendMessage Expand
         , ((mod4Mask .|. shiftMask, xK_h), do
            layout <- getActiveLayoutDescription
            case layout of
                "BSP" -> sendMessage $ ExpandTowards L
                _     -> sendMessage Shrink

Note that you can give your layouts custom names through Renamed.

Granting Capabilities Using capsh

On Linux it sometimes is useful to grant privileged capabilities to binaries without running them as root. Usually this is achieved by setting capabilities on the file through setcap. However, this has some complications with environment variables and capabilities inheritance of child processes. We can use capsh instead of setcap to achieve what we want using ambient capabilities.

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Using Nix to Create R Virtual Environments

Previously we saw how to use Nix to create virtual environments for Python. We can do the same for R. This means we can have different simultaneous R installations for different projects and keep the installed packages for each project separated. An important benefit of this is the ability to have different (incompatible) versions of the same packages for different projects.

The straightforward approach is to let Nix handle all R package management. However, sometimes it is useful to manage packages through the various R tools such as the built-in install.packages or install utilities provided by the devtools package.

R looks for installed packages in the R library directories, of which there are two types: the system library and the user library. By default these package management tools install packages in the first-specified user library directory. The user library directories can be specified through the R_LIBS_USER environment variable. We can use Nix to specify a unique library directory per project.

For example, create a nix.shell in your project root as follows:

with import <nixpkgs> {};
  my-r = rWrapper.override {
    packages = with rPackages; [ 
  pkgs.mkShell {
    buildInputs = [
    shellHook = ''
      mkdir -p "$(pwd)/_libs"
      export R_LIBS_USER="$(pwd)/_libs"

Activate it in your shell by running $ nix-shell.

This makes available R with ggplot, plyr, tidyr and devtools. It creates a subdirectory in your project root, _libs, where the project’s R user library is located.

Using Nix to Create Python Virtual Environments

Nix and Python logos

Nix is a great tool to set up development environments. It allows us to have simultaneous installations of various versions of tools—such as Python—required for our projects. This means Nix makes it easy to have Python 2.7 installed for one project, and Python 3.6 for another. Projects using the same Python version can have different Python packages.

Of course, Python’s VirtualEnv also enables us to do this. Nix, however, is more powerful. It can handle all our system’s packages; not just Python’s. This means it enables us to hold different versions of any dependency. For example, if one project requires a specific version of OpenCL and another project requires an incompatible version, VirtualEnv won’t help us. Nix will.

There are many Python packages, and to install one such package through Nix requires it to be available in the Nix package repository. Understandably, not all Python packages are packaged for Nix—and those that are, often are not the newest version, nor at some other specific version we require.

We can use Nix to provision a Python environment for our project that works similarly to VirtualEnv’s. We can then use pip to handle such per-project Python dependencies, allowing us to grab Python packages directly from the regular Python package repositories without going through Nix. This also allows us to quickly get to work with others’ Python projects that are not set up to work with Nix.

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Hibernation and Hybrid Sleep on Ubuntu 17.04, Gnome 3.24

I was having trouble using suspend, hibernate and hybrid sleep functionality on Ubuntu 17.04 using Gnome 3.24. The troubles started immediately after installing the uswsusp package:

apt-get install uswsusp

I was hopeful and typed systemctl hibernate, but the system got stuck on Snapshotting system.

After a hard shutdown, the system was no longer bootable. It would only boot in recovery after waiting for 5 minutes on /scripts/local-premount.

These issues were caused by having an encrypted swap file, but soon other issues surfaced, rooted in shaky support for hibernation in both Ubuntu and Gnome.

So, here’s a guide to how I set up hibernation.

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